Category Archives: Drug Abuse

Teen prescription opioid abuse, cigarette, and alcohol use down, but e-cigarette use up

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Two white tabletsFrom the US Department of Health and Human Services

Use of cigarettes, alcohol, and abuse of prescription pain relievers among teens has declined since 2013 while marijuana use rates were stable, according to the 2014 Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey, released today by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). However, use of e-cigarettes, measured in the report for the first time, is high.

These 2014 results are part of an overall two-decade trend among the nation’s youth. The MTF survey measures drug use and attitudes among eighth, 10th, and 12th graders, is funded by NIDA, and is conducted by researchers at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. NIDA is part of the National Institutes of Health.

“With the rates of many drugs decreasing, and the rates of marijuana use appearing to level off, it is possible that prevention efforts are having an effect,” said NIDA Director Nora D. Volkow, M.D.

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Naloxone kits for overdoses now available in Snohomish County

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Snohomish CountyNaloxone kits for treating opioid overdoses are now available at a number of pharmacies in Snohomish County.

These kits are available just by asking the pharmacists, there is no need to see a doctor to obtain a prescription.The cost of the kits is around $125.

Pharmacists will provide education to those being given a Naloxone kit on how to use it and when to use it.

In 2013 there were 86 opioid drug overdoses in Snohomish County, and 580 within Washington State.

The availability of naloxone (sold under the brand name Narcan) could potentially cut down on deaths due to heroin and prescription opioid drugs (morphine, oxycodone/OxyContin, methadone, hydrocodone/Vicodin, and codeine).  Continue reading

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Got Drugs? – National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day is Today

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Got Drugs

Got Drugs? – National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day

September 27, 2014
10AM to 2PM

The National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day aims to provide a safe, convenient, and responsible means of disposing of prescription drugs, while also educating the general public about the potential for abuse of medications.

Locate a Collection Site Near You

 

 

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Vicodin, some other pain meds will be harder to get – DEA

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Patients who use drugs containing hydrocodone as a pain reliever or cough suppressant are going to have to jump through more hoops to get them starting next month.

The Drug Enforcement Administration is reclassifying so-called “hydrocodone combination products” (HCP) from Schedule III to Schedule II under the Controlled Substances Act, which will more tightly restrict access. Vicodin, for example, is an HCP because it has hydrocodone and acetaminophen.

The final regulation, which takes effect Oct. 6, will mean that patients generally must present a written prescription to receive the drug, and doctors will no longer be able to call in a prescription to the pharmacy in most instances.

Many patients with painful chronic diseases, including cancer, take hydrocodone combination products

.The regulation is a response to the widespread misuse of prescription pain killers.

In an emergency, doctors will still be able to call in a prescription, according to the new rule. And although prescription refills are prohibited, a doctor can, at his discretion, issue multiple prescriptions that would provide up to a 90-day supply.

These measures don’t satisfy consumer advocates or pharmacists who are opposed to the new rule. Continue reading

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Women’s health week – 48: Drugs

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tacuin womenFrom the Office of Research on Women’s Health

As with many other diseases, the likelihood of becoming addicted differs from person to person, and between males and females.

For substance abuse overall, men are about twice as likely as women to be dependent on most illicit drugs and/or alcohol.

When someone first begins using drugs, addiction does not seem like a dangerous disease, and a person may perceive what seem to be positive effects of drug use. Continue reading

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Deaths involving heroin and prescription painkillers continue to rise in King County

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drug thumbDeaths involving heroin and prescription painkillers continued to rise in King County in 2013, according to a new annual report prepared by the King County Drug Trends Workgroup.

The lead author of the report is Caleb Banta-Green, a scientist and epidemiologist at the University of Washington’s  Alcohol & Drug Abuse Institute.

The report found that deaths involving heroin in King County continue to steadily increase reaching 99 in 2013 up from 49 in 2009 though below the peak of 144 in 1998. Continue reading

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Medicaid tailored to those with mental health problems

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Jigsaw puzzle with one piece to add

This KHN story also ran in .

Studies show that enrollees with mental illness, who also have chronic physical conditions, account for a large share of Medicaid spending.

Seeking to improve care and lower costs, Florida this month became the first state to offer a Medicaid health plan designed exclusively for people with serious mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, major depression or bipolar conditions. Continue reading

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Women’s Health – Week 41: Quitting Smoking

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tacuin womenFrom the Office of Research on Women’s Health

Quitting smoking If you stop using tobacco, you could greatly improve your health. Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States.

Smoking causes most cancers of the larynx (voice box), oral cavity (mouth) and pharynxesophagusbladderkidney, stomach, and cervix.

Tobacco smoke contains chemicals that are harmful. Health care providers know that at least 250 of the 4,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke are harmful.

If you smoke, your risk of developing smoking-related diseases, such as lung and other cancers, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory illnesses, increase with each additional year you smoke. Continue reading

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Obamacare boosts hospital mental healthcare for young adults

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teen-in-shadow-lightBy Jay Hancock
JUNE 11TH, 2014, 5:00 AM

Expanded coverage for young adults under the Affordable Care Act substantially raised inpatient hospital visits related to mental health, finds a new study by researchers at Indiana and Purdue universities.

That looks like good news: Better access to care for a population with higher-than-average levels of mental illness that too often endangers them and people nearby.

But it might not be the best result, said Kosali Simon, an economist at Indiana University and one of the authors.

Greater hospital use by the newly insured might be caused by inadequate outpatient resources to treat mental-health patients earlier and less expensively, she said. Continue reading

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Oregon schools use ‘behavioral vaccine’ to reduce smoking

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Blackboard with "Lesson one" written on it.

Photo: Krzysztof “Kriss” Szkurlatowski

By Kristian Foden-Vencil
Oregon Public Broadcasting

Behaving well in elementary school could reduce smoking in later life. At least, that’s what Trillium Community Health Plan hopes, and it’s putting money behind the idea.

Danebo Elementary in Eugene, Ore., is one of 50 schools receiving money to teach classes while integrating something called the “Good Behavior Game.”

Teacher Cami Railey sits at a small table, surrounded by four kids. She’s about to teach them the “s” sound and the “a” sound. But first, as she does every day, she goes over the rules.

“You’re going to earn your stars today by sitting in the learning position,” she says. “That means your bottom is on your seat, backs on the back of your seat. Excellent job, just like that.”

For good learning behavior, like sitting quietly, keeping their eyes on the teacher and working hard, kids get a star and some stickers.

Railey says the game keeps the kids plugged in and therefore learning more. That in turn makes them better educated teens and adults who’re less likely to pick up a dangerous habit, like smoking.

The Washington, D.C., nonprofit Coalition for Evidence Based Policy says it works. It did a study that found that by age 13, the game had reduced the number of kids who had started to smoke by 26 percent — and reduced the number of kids who had started to take hard drugs by more than half.

The fact that a teacher is playing the Good Behavior Game isn’t unusual. What is unusual is that Trillium is paying for it. Part of the Affordable Care Act involves the federal government giving money to states to figure out new ways to prevent people from getting sick in the first place.

So Trillium is setting aside nearly $900,000 a year for disease prevention strategies, like this one. Jennifer Webster is the disease prevention coordinator for Trillium Community Health, and she thinks it’s a good investment.

“The Good Behavior Game is more than just a game that you play in the classroom. It’s actually been called a behavioral vaccine,” she says. “This is really what needs to be done. What we really need to focus on is prevention.”

Trillium is paying the poorer schools of Eugene’s Bethel School District to adopt the strategy in 50 classrooms.

Trillium CEO Terry Coplin says changes to Oregon and federal law mean that instead of paying for each Medicaid recipient to get treatment, Trillium gets a fixed amount of money for each of its 56,000 Medicaid recipients. That way Trillium can pay for disease prevention efforts that benefit the whole Medicaid population, not just person by person as they need it.

“I think the return on investment for the Good Behavior Game is going to be somewhere in the neighborhood of 10 to one,” Coplin says.

So, for each dollar spent on playing the game, the health agency expects to save $10 by not having to pay to treat these kids later in life for lung cancer because they took up smoking.

Coplin concedes that some of Trillium’s Medicaid recipients will leave the system each year. But he says prevention still makes medical and financial sense.

“All the incentives are really aligned in the right direction. The healthier that we can make the population, the bigger the financial reward,” he says.

The Oregon Health Authority estimates that each pack of cigarettes smoked costs Oregonians about $13 in medical expenses and productivity losses.

Not all the money Trillium is spending goes for the Good Behavior Game. Some of it is earmarked to pay pregnant smokers cold, hard cash to give up the habit. There’s also a plan to have kids try to buy cigarettes at local stores, then give money to store owners who refuse to sell.

This story is part of a reporting partnership that includes NPROregon Public Broadcasting and Kaiser Health News

Photo courtesy of Krzysztof “Kriss” Szkurlatowski

This article was reprinted from kaiserhealthnews.org with permission from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health News, an editorially independent news service, is a program of the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan health care policy research organization unaffiliated with Kaiser Permanente.

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Study doubles estimate of pot use in Washington state

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Cannabis_leaf_marijuana_potMarijuana consumption in Washington state is about twice as large as previously estimated, according to a new RAND Corporation study.

Washington voters approved Initiative 502 in November 2012 that legalized recreational use of marijuana for those aged 21 and older, and requires the state to regulate and tax a new marijuana market.

Commercial marijuana stores and associated supply chains are scheduled to begin operating in 2014.

In the study, researchers used data from the federal government as well as data from a survey of marijuana users in the state to estimate that state’s annual consumption of marijuana.

They conclude consumption will likely range between 134 metric tons to 225 metric tons this year, with a median of 175 metric tons, or about 385,809 pounds.

The state’s three most-populous counties (King, Snohomish and Pierce) account for about half of all use. King County accounts for about 30 percent of the marijuana users, while Snohomish and Pierce counties have roughly 11 percent each, the report found.

The Washington Office of Financial Management previously had estimated that marijuana consumption in Washington would be 85 metric tons in 2013.

The analysis was done as a part of efforts to help the Washington State Liquor Control Board prepare for commercial sales of marijuana

The RAND report, “Before the Grand Opening: Measuring Washington State’s Marijuana Market in the Last Year Before Legalized Commercial Sales,” is available at www.rand.org.

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Addressing a dangerous epidemic: Abuse of Painkillers and other prescription drugs

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Tablet Thumb BlueBy Ankita Rao
KHN

About 50 Americans die every day from a prescription drug overdose — a tally that, in most states, turns out to be more than deaths from car accidents.

In a new report, “Prescription Drug Abuse: Strategies to Stop the Epidemic,” researchers at the Trust for America’s Health found that rates of overdose and addiction doubled since 1999 in most states.

In West Virginia — the state with the highest number of drug overdose deaths — the rate was six times higher than fourteen years ago.

During a conference call on Monday, the researchers said the emergence of prescription drugs like oxycodone has benefitted many people but is also marked by a corresponding rise in misuse.

“Working on this report, we were overwhelmed by the number of sad stories of tragedies that could have been averted,” said Jeff Levi, executive director of the Trust for America’s Health.

He said intervention strategies — ranging from the education of health providers to the correct disposal of unused medications — are proven solutions.

The Trust for America’s Health, along with other public health and law enforcement experts, reviewed national recommendations and examined a set of 10 indicators that were having a positive impact, including certain laws and educational initiatives.

But most states had in place six or less of the indicators that help curb the issue. Only New Mexico and Vermont had all 10 strategies touted by the report. South Dakota had the lowest number: two.

Levi also said a Medicaid expansion in the 24 states and District of Columbia that are expanding the federal-state health insurance program for low-income people will lead to expanded coverage of substance abuse and treatment.

Meghan Andreae, a senior case manager at the addiction services and consulting firm Southworth Associates, said many clients become addicted to painkillers first through legitimate prescriptions for a health concern but later seek out new doctors and methods to obtain the drugs.

This issue highlights the need for more awareness among physicians — one of the strategies outlined in the report — since only 22 states have laws that require or recommend continuing education for doctors and other health providers who prescribe prescription pain meds.

“I would certainly say that’s something that’s lacking,” Andreae said. “A small amount of their training is spent on this issue.”

While the report highlights the shortcomings of prescription drug abuse prevention, it also recognizes that many states are taking steps to address the issue.

Almost all state Medicaid programs have in place a pharmacy “lock-in” program that requires patients to use a single prescriber or pharmacy if they are suspected of abusing drugs.

And, in 44 states, health providers have to conduct a physical exam and screen for substance abuse before prescribing medication.

Other recommendations include:

  • Good Samaritan Laws — Measures that protect individuals from criminal charges for helping themselves or others experiencing an overdose.
  • ID Requirements — Laws requiring or permitting a pharmacist to require an ID before dispensing a controlled substance.
  • Rescue drug laws — Laws to expand access to the use of naloxone, a drug that can be effective in counteracting an overdose.

“Given the extraordinarily rapid growth of the problem, we’re also impressed by how quickly policies have emerged to get a handle on it, and how quickly many of these are showing signs of progress,” said Andrea Gielen, director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy, who was a reviewer of the report.

This article was reprinted from kaiserhealthnews.org with permission from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health News, an editorially independent news service, is a program of the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan health care policy research organization unaffiliated with Kaiser Permanente.

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Medicaid limiting access to meds for painkiller addiction

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pills-spill-out-of-bottleBy Michael Ollove, Staff Writer
Stateline 

To Mark Publicker, a doctor in Portland, Maine, who practices addiction medicine, it’s a clear case of discrimination. You wouldn’t deprive a diabetic of insulin.

You wouldn’t stop giving hypertension drugs to a patient with high blood pressure after successful treatment. You wouldn’t hold back a statin from a patient with high cholesterol.

Yet Publicker’s patients face severe limitations on the amount and duration of medicines they take to fight their addictions to pain pills.

And the consequences of those policies by Medicaid and private insurers are at least as dire as they would be for those with other serious ailments if they were denied proven treatments, he said.

“People will die,” Publicker said.

Many private insurance companies and state Medicaid agencies across the country impose sharp limitations on access to medications used in the treatment of the addiction to prescription painkillers known as opioids.

A report commissioned by the American Society of Addiction Medicine found that Medicaid agencies in just 28 states cover all three of medications that the Food and Drug Administration has approved for opioid addiction treatment: methadone, buprenorphine and naltrexone.

The study also found that most state Medicaid agencies, even those that cover all three medications, place restrictions on getting them by requiring prior authorization and re-authorization, imposing lifetime limitations and tapering dosage strengths. The study was done by the substance abuse research firm Avisa Group.

“Now that we finally have medications that are shown to be effective and cost-effective it is shameful to throw up roadblocks to their use,” said Mady Chalk, director of the Center for Policy Research and Analysis at the Treatment Research Institute, which researches all aspects of substance abuse.

By any measure, there is an epidemic in the misuse of prescription drugs, most of it involving abuse of opioid painkillers such as OxyContin or Percocet. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 12 million Americans acknowledged using prescription painkillers for nonmedical reasons in 2010.

While opioid addiction is on the rise in the United States, so too are the opportunities for treatment. In January, when major provisions of the Affordable Care Act go into effect, 37 million currently uninsured Americans will be enrolled in health insurance plans, an estimated 11.2 million of them in Medicaid.

Among those newly insured will be many with an opioid addiction. (One study showed a higher rate of opioid addiction among current Medicaid beneficiaries than among those on other forms of insurance.)

Yet even though the ACA holds out the possibility of new treatment options for many, restrictions on the medicines used in treating opioid addicts clouds the chances of successful recovery, treatment experts say.

The CDC says that the number of overdose deaths from opioids tripled between 1999 and 2008, when it reached 14,800 deaths. That is more than the number of overdoses from heroin and cocaine combined.

Prescription painkillers bind receptors in the brain to decrease the perception of pain. But they can also produce a feeling of euphoria, cause physical dependence and lead to addiction. These opioids can also cause sedation and slow breathing, sometimes to the point of stopping it altogether.

History of Addiction

Opioid addiction has existed in the United States at least as far back as the Civil War when opioids were given to wounded soldiers to relieve pain.

Later in the century, it was common for women to become addicted to the laudanum, opium and morphine they were prescribed for the discomforts caused by menstruation or menopause.

By 1900, 300,000 Americans were addicted to opioids, according to the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Early in the 20th century there were aborted attempts to detoxify addicts with decreasing doses of heroin and morphine, but it wasn’t until the 1960s that an effective drug was developed for the treatment of opioid addiction. T

hat medicine was methadone, itself an opioid that has to be taken daily but doesn’t create the euphoria of other opioids and also provides relief from the craving for opioids.

Eventually, two other drugs were developed and proved effective for opioid addiction, buprenorphine and naltrexone, the latter of which can be injected and is effective for a month. Both of these drugs can be prescribed by a doctor and filled at pharmacies.

Research has shown successful treatment reduces the rates of disease associated with illicit drug use, including HIV/AIDS and hepatitis. It also reduces crime while enabling addicts to join the workforce and resume their roles within families.

Research also shows that detoxification without continued medicinal treatment results in a high rate of relapse. Without the medicine, addicts return to drug use.

Yet, most state Medicaid agencies have found ways to reduce access to these drugs in an effort to cut costs. “For these limitations to be imposed by the government is particularly odious and would not be accepted by any other disease,” said Publicker, who waged a losing battle in the Maine legislature in 2011 to fend off a two-year limitation on treatment drugs to Medicaid patients.

Maine state Rep. Elizabeth Dickerson, a Democrat who introduced a bill this year to continue lifetime restrictions on methadone, denied that she was targeting addicts.

Methadone is an expensive program for the state, she said, and it concerned her that addicts were simply replacing one addictive drug for another. She said addicts should be able to achieve a drug-free existence. She pegged the cost in Maine at $15 million a year.

“Maybe they should have to pay for it themselves,” Dickerson told Stateline.

“A Stigmatized Illness”

“The reality is that government exists to live within a lot of parameters,” said Matt Salo, executive director of the National Association of Medicaid Directors. “That’s the nature of government and health care. Decisions have to be made.”

Carol McDaid, co-founder of Capitol Decisions, a consulting firm that specializes in substance abuse policy, said it’s common to those who draft state budgets to target this treatment first “because it is a voiceless, under-represented constituency.”

“This is a stigmatized illness,” McDaid said. “It’s a chronic illness just like diabetes and asthma, but people with those diseases often don’t commit crimes. But that’s another reason why these treatment drugs need to be fully funded. Unlike those other illnesses, with this one there is a public safety issue.”

Addiction experts are hopeful that the federal Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act will even the playing field between opioid treatment drugs and other medications. The law says that patients with mental illness and substance abuse issues are entitled to the same level of care as those with other illnesses or conditions.

But even though the act was passed in 2008, the federal government has yet to write specific rules that would make it enforceable.

It could take years – and lawsuits – before the law removes the restrictive policies on medicines used in opioid treatments.  In the meantime, addiction specialists are focusing on making the case that these medicines work, and limiting their usage makes no sense.

“This just hasn’t been thought out well enough,” said Mark L. Kraus, who practices addiction medicine in Connecticut. “They think they are saving money, but that isn’t true. The cost for not treating is far higher to the state than treating.”

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Stateline is a nonpartisan, nonprofit news service of the Pew Center on the States that provides daily reporting and analysis on trends in state policy.

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Prescription painkiller overdoses soar among women

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Pills-red-and-whitePrescription Painkiller Overdoses

A growing epidemic, especially among women

Vital Signs, a publication of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The numbers

48,000: Nearly 48,000 women died of prescription painkiller* overdoses between 1999 and 2010

400%: Deaths from prescription painkiller overdoses among women have increased more than 400% since 1999, compared to 265% among men.

30: For every woman who dies of a prescription painkiller overdose, 30 go to the emergency department for painkiller misuse or abuse.

About 18 women die every day of a prescription painkiller overdose in the US, more than 6,600 deaths in 2010. Prescription painkiller overdoses are an under-recognized and growing problem for women.

Although men are still more likely to die of prescription painkiller overdoses (more than 10,000 deaths in 2010), the gap between men and women is closing.

Deaths from prescription painkiller overdose among women have risen more sharply than among men; since 1999 the percentage increase in deaths was more than 400% among women compared to 265% in men.

This rise relates closely to increased prescribing of these drugs during the past decade. Health care providers can help improve the way painkillers are prescribed while making sure women have access to safe, effective pain treatment.

When prescribing painkillers, health care providers can

  • Recognize that women are at risk of prescription painkiller overdose.
  • Follow guidelines for responsible prescribing, including screening and monitoring for substance abuse and mental health problems.
  • Use prescription drug monitoring programs to identify patients who may be improperly obtaining or using prescription painkillers and other drugs.

*”Prescription painkillers” refers to opioid or narcotic pain relievers, including drugs such as Vicodin (hydrocodone), OxyContin (oxycodone), Opana (oxymorphone), and methadone.

Problem

Prescription painkiller overdoses are a serious and growing problem among women.

  • More than 5 times as many women died from prescription painkiller overdoses in 2010 as in 1999.
  • Women between the ages of 25 and 54 are more likely than other age groups to go to the emergency department from prescription painkiller misuse or abuse. Women ages 45 to 54 have the highest risk of dying from a prescription painkiller overdose.*
  • Non-Hispanic white and American Indian or Alaska Native women have the highest risk of dying from a prescription painkiller overdose.
  • Prescription painkillers are involved in 1 in 10 suicides among women.

*Death data include unintentional, suicide, and other deaths. Emergency department visits only include suicide attempts if an illicit drug was involved in the attempt.

More than 5 times as many women died from prescription painkiller overdoses in 2010 as in 1999.

  • Women are more likely to have chronic pain, be prescribed prescription painkillers, be given higher doses, and use them for longer time periods than men.
  • Women may become dependent on prescription painkillers more quickly than men.
  • Women may be more likely than men to engage in “doctor shopping” (obtaining prescriptions from multiple prescribers).
  • Abuse of prescription painkillers by pregnant women can put an infant at risk. Cases of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)—which is a group of problems that can occur in newborns exposed to prescription painkillers or other drugs while in the womb—grew by almost 300% in the US between 2000 and 2009.
If you take mental health drugs and prescription painkillers, discuss the combination with your health care provider.

Prescription painkiller overdose deaths are a growing problem among women.

Prescription painkiller overdose deaths are a growing problem among women.
SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, 1999-2010 (deaths include suicides)Every 3 minutes, a woman goes to the emergency department for prescription painkiller misuse or abuse.

SOURCE: Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2010. (Suicide attempts are included for the cases (.03% of total) where opioids were combined with illicit drugs in the attempt.)

What Can Be Done

Icon: Federal government

The US government is:

  • Tracking prescription drug overdose trends to better understand the epidemic.
  • Educating health care providers and the public about prescription drug misuse, abuse, suicide, and overdose, and the risks for women.
  • Developing and evaluating programs and policies that prevent and treat prescription drug abuse and overdose, while making sure patients have access to safe, effective pain treatment.
  • Working to improve access to mental health and substance abuse treatment through implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

Icon: Health care providers

Health care providers can:

  • Recognize that women can be at risk of prescription drug overdose.
  • Discuss pain treatment options, including ones that do not involve prescription drugs.
  • Discuss the risks and benefits of taking prescription painkillers, especially during pregnancy. This includes when painkillers are taken for chronic conditions.
  • Follow guidelines for responsible painkiller prescribing, including:
    • Screening and monitoring for substance abuse and mental health problems.
    • Prescribing only the quantity needed based on appropriate pain diagnosis.
    • Using patient-provider agreements combined with urine drug tests for people using prescription painkillers long term.
    • Teaching patients how to safely use, store, and dispose of drugs.
  • Avoiding combinations of prescription painkillers and benzodiazepines (such as Xanax and Valium) unless there is a specific medical indication.
  • Talk with pregnant women who are dependent on prescription painkillers about treatment options, such as opioid agonist therapy.
  • Use prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs)—electronic databases that track all controlled substance prescriptions in the state—to identify patients who may be improperly using prescription painkillers and other drugs.

Icon: Building

States can:

  • Take steps to improve PDMPs, such as real time data reporting and access, integration with electronic health records, proactive unsolicited reporting, incentives for provider use, and interoperability with other states.
  • Identify improper prescribing of painkillers and other prescription drugs by using PDMPs and other data.
  • Increase access to substance abuse treatment, including getting immediate treatment help for pregnant women.
  • Consider steps that can reduce barriers (such as lack of childcare) to substance abuse treatment for women.

Icon: Women

Women can:

  • Discuss all medications they are taking (including over-the-counter) with their health care provider.
  • Use prescription drugs only as directed by a health care provider, and store them in a secure place.
  • Dispose of medications properly, as soon as the course of treatment is done. Do not keep prescription medications around “just in case.” (Seewww.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/Poisoning/preventiontips.htm)
  • Help prevent misuse and abuse by not selling or sharing prescription drugs. Never use another person’s prescription drugs.
  • Discuss pregnancy plans with their health care provider before taking prescription painkillers.
  • Get help for substance abuse problems (1-800- 662-HELP); call Poison Help (1-800-222-1222) for questions about medicines.

Science Behind this Issue

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Teens have unsupervised access to prescription drugs

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By Stephanie Stephens, HBNS Contributing Writer
Research Source: Journal of Adolescent Health

A new study in the Journal of Adolescent Health found that 83.4 percent of teens had unsupervised access to their prescription medications at home including 73.7 percent taking pain relief, anti-anxiety, stimulant and sedative medications that have the potential for abuse.

pills-spill-out-of-bottle

“It was surprising to me that parents were not storing medications securely because I expected them to be locked up and for parents to administer the medications,” said Paula Ross-Derow, Ph.D., of the University of Michigan’s Institute for Research on Women and Gender.

She and her colleagues explored the supervision of prescribed medications among 230 adolescents in 8th and 9th grade, using an online survey and in-person interview.

Emergency room visits for non-medical use of prescription narcotic pain relievers are increasing in people under age 21, and death by poisoning due to prescription overdoses is up 91 percent in less than a decade among adolescents ages 15 to 19, note the researchers.

They acknowledge that it is possible that parents and guardians may not believe that their children would engage in non-medical use or give away their prescription medications and therefore do not take steps to secure them.

“Dr. Ross-Durow’s paper shows that the majority of adolescents who are prescribed controlled medications have easy, unsupervised access to them,” said Silvia Martins, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of epidemiology at Columbia University. “This is of great concern, since it not only can lead to the possibility of overdose of medications with potential abuse liability, but also can contribute to diversion of these medications and nonmedical use by their peers.”

“Parents don’t recognize that other kids come into their homes and can open a cabinet or see meds on the kitchen counter and take them,” Ross-Durow explained. “Teenagers may give them away—thinking they’re helping a friend—and they don’t see this as a risky behavior, or some may sell the medications. Visitors in the home may simply steal them.”

The researchers admit they don’t know whether providers are adequately educating parents and encourage more studies around this topic. “Plus, what we did not ask, but realized when examining our findings, is about other medications prescribed to parents and how those are stored. What we want to know is when medications are readily available in the home; does that lead to nonmedical use? We believe unsupervised access lays the groundwork for that,” said Ross-Durow.

Journal of Adolescent Health:www.jahonline.org

Paula Lynn Ross-Durow, Ph.D., Sean Esteban McCabe, Ph.D., and Carol J. Boyd, Ph.D. (2013). Adolescents’ Access to Their Own Prescription Medications in the Home, Journal of Adolescent Health.

Health Behavior News Service is part of the Center for Advancing Health

The Health Behavior News Service disseminates news stories on the latest findings from peer-reviewed research journals. HBNS covers both new studies and systematic reviews of studies on (1) the effects of behavior on health, (2) health disparities data and (3) patient engagement research. The goal of HBNS stories is to present the facts for readers to understand and use for themselves to make informed choices about health and health care.

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