Category Archives: Diet & Nutrition

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Women’s Health – Week 16: Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2

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From the Office of Research on Women’s Health

Glucometer showing a blood sugar of 105Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Your blood always has some glucose in it because your body needs glucose for energy. Too much glucose, however, is not good for your health.

Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps the glucose from food get into your cells. If your body does not make enough insulin, or if the insulin does not work the way it should, glucose cannot get into your cells for energy. It stays in your blood instead. Your blood glucose levels then get too high, causing diabetes.

With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas no longer makes insulin. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day. Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5 to 10 percent of diagnosed diabetes in the United States. Children and young adults most often develop type 1 diabetes, but it can appear at any age.

With type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. People with type 2 diabetes often need to take pills or insulin. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and can occur at any age, even childhood.

Having a parent, brother, or sister with diabetes, or being overweight and inactive increases the chances of developing type 2 diabetes.

Pregnant women can also develop diabetes, called gestational diabetes (see Week 18 for more information). Gestational diabetes often goes away after the baby is born. But having gestational diabetes can place you and your child at increased risk for developing diabetes later in life.

Symptoms of diabetes may include fatigue, thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, and frequent urination. With type 2 diabetes, some people have no symptoms at all. A blood test can show if you have diabetes.

Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, heart, gums, teeth, and nerves. It can lead to blindness, kidney failure, and the loss of a foot or a leg. The most serious problem caused by diabetes is heart disease. If you have diabetes you are more than twice as likely as people without diabetes to have a heart attack or a stroke.

The good news is that if you have diabetes, you can take steps to manage the disease. Learn how to manage the ABCs of diabetes. A is for the HbA1C test, which shows you what your blood glucose has been over the past 3 months. B is for blood pressure and C is for cholesterol.

You can lower your chances of developing serious health problems by keeping your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels in the target range your health care provider gives you. You can manage your diabetes by being active every day and keeping your weight in a healthy range. Follow your meal plan, take your medications, and check your blood glucose as directed by your health care provider.

For more information: www.yourdiabetesinfo.org

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Shape up your mood

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Runners LegsExercise releases hormones that can leave you feeling calmer and happier, while offering the opportunity to relieve stress, meet new people, and and boost self-confidence.

When you feel sad, frustrated or stressed this week, blow off some steam with a 30–minute exercise session.

You’ll feel refreshed and happier for it!

 

About the Monday Campaigns:

The Healthy Monday Tips is produced by a national health promotion initiative called the Monday Campaigns.

The thinking behind the initiative derives from two studies done at the Center for a Liveable Future at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health by Jullian Fry and Roni Neff.

In one study, they reviewed the scientific studies that looked at ways to get people to adopt healthy habits.

In that review, they found that one of the most effective ways to keep people on track is simply to remind them from time to time to stick to it.

But when would be the best time send those reminders?

Fry and Neff decided to look at Monday, which many of us consider the start of our week.

To better understand how we thought and felt about Monday, they reviewed the scientific literature as well as cultural references to Monday in movies, songs, books and other forms of art and literature, even video games.

They noted that a number of scientific studies have found that we may suffer more health problems on Monday. For example, a number of studies find that Americans have more heart attacks and strokes on Monday.

There is also evidence that we have more on-the-job injuries on Monday, perhaps because we are not quite back into the swing of things, or are still recovering from our weekend.

Fry and Neff also found that while many of us, facing the return to work, may dread Mondays, Monday is also seen as a day for making a fresh start.

Fry and Neff concluded that Monday might be a good day for promoting healthy habits. Calling attention to the health problems linked to the first day of the work week, such as heart attacks and on-the-job injuries, makes Monday a natural day to highlight the importance of prevention.

And the Monday’s reputation as a day to make a fresh start offers the opportunity to help people to renew their efforts to adopt healthier habits.

Fry and Neff’s findings are put into practice by the Monday Campaigns, which helps individuals and organizations use Monday as a focus for their health promotion efforts, providing free research, literature and artwork, and other support.

To learn more about Healthy Mondays:

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One man’s trash is another man’s measure

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Fast FoodKeep track of how much you’re eating by living with your food packaging and remains.

One study offering all-you-can eat chicken wings found that participants whose leftover bones had been cleared away ate 34% more than diners whose remnants remained at the table.

That’s a lot of wings! Visual reminders – like candy wrappers, soda cans, and take-out receipts - can help you keep track of how much you’ve already consumed, so you’ll be less likely to overeat.

This week take the no-throw challenge and keep your wrappers, empty containers, bones and other bits on the table during the entire meal.

 

About the Monday Campaigns:

The Healthy Monday Tips is produced by a national health promotion initiative called the Monday Campaigns.

The thinking behind the initiative derives from two studies done at the Center for a Liveable Future at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health by Jullian Fry and Roni Neff.

In one study, they reviewed the scientific studies that looked at ways to get people to adopt healthy habits.

In that review, they found that one of the most effective ways to keep people on track is simply to remind them from time to time to stick to it.

But when would be the best time send those reminders?

Fry and Neff decided to look at Monday, which many of us consider the start of our week.

To better understand how we thought and felt about Monday, they reviewed the scientific literature as well as cultural references to Monday in movies, songs, books and other forms of art and literature, even video games.

They noted that a number of scientific studies have found that we may suffer more health problems on Monday. For example, a number of studies find that Americans have more heart attacks and strokes on Monday.

There is also evidence that we have more on-the-job injuries on Monday, perhaps because we are not quite back into the swing of things, or are still recovering from our weekend.

Fry and Neff also found that while many of us, facing the return to work, may dread Mondays, Monday is also seen as a day for making a fresh start.

Fry and Neff concluded that Monday might be a good day for promoting healthy habits. Calling attention to the health problems linked to the first day of the work week, such as heart attacks and on-the-job injuries, makes Monday a natural day to highlight the importance of prevention.

And the Monday’s reputation as a day to make a fresh start offers the opportunity to help people to renew their efforts to adopt healthier habits.

Fry and Neff’s findings are put into practice by the Monday Campaigns, which helps individuals and organizations use Monday as a focus for their health promotion efforts, providing free research, literature and artwork, and other support.

To learn more about Healthy Mondays:

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Understanding obesity in children – AHRQ summary for parents

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Kids 1From the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

How do I know if my child is at a healthy weight?

young boy on scaleYour child’s doctor will track your child’s height and weight over time and can tell you if your child is at a healthy weight. During wellness checkups, be sure to talk with your child’s doctor about your child’s weight.

Your child’s doctor may ask you about:

  • Your child’s eating habits
  • Whether you have places to get healthy food for your child
  • How much physical activity your child gets
  • Whether there are safe places for your child to run around and play
  • How much screen time your child has each day (time spent watching television, playing video games, or sitting in front of a computer, cell phone, or tablet such as an iPad)
  • Any health problems your child has
  • Your family’s medical history

What is BMI and what are BMI percentiles?

To find out if your child is in a healthy weight range, your child’s doctor may use something called BMI, or “body mass index.” BMI is a measurement based on your child’s height and weight. BMI helps the doctor estimate how much body fat your child has. The doctor can use BMI to see if your child is at a healthy weight for his or her height. A healthy BMI is different for girls and boys and changes by age.

Your doctor may compare your child’s BMI to the typical BMI range for children of the same sex and age. To do so, doctors may use what is called a “BMI percentile.” This can help the doctor figure out if a child is underweight, at a healthy weight, overweight, or obese.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), children are considered:

  • At a healthy weight if their BMI is between the 5th and 85th percentile
  • Overweight if their BMI is between the 85th and 95th percentile
  • Obese if their BMI is in the 95th percentile or above

To calculate your child’s BMI and BMI percentile, go to http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/dnpabmi/.

What health problems can being overweight or obese cause for a child?

Children who are overweight or obese are more likely to be overweight or obese as adults. They are also more likely to develop serious health problems such as:

  • High blood sugar or diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol (a type of fat in the blood)
  • Sleep apnea (a condition in which you stop breathing for brief periods of time while you sleep)
  • Heart problems (such as heart attack or heart failure) or a stroke as an adult
  • Extra pressure on bones and joints, which could lead to bone and joint problems both as a child and as an adult
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (a disease caused by too much fat in the liver)
  • Low self-esteem or depression
  • Eating disorders such as binge eating and purging

What might lead to a child becoming overweight or obese?

Many things can lead to a child becoming overweight or obese, including:

  • Unhealthy eating habits. Children may eat too much, eat too many unhealthy foods, or drink too many sugary drinks.
  • Not getting enough sleep. Children who do not get enough sleep each night are more likely to become overweight.
  • Family history. Children from overweight families may be more likely to become overweight. This could be due to a child’s genes or learned family eating habits.
  • Not enough physical activity. Children may not get enough physical activity. Children should be active for at least 1 hour each day.
  • Too much screen time. Children may have too much screen time during the day. Some children may eat while watching television or playing on the computer.
  • Environment. Children may spend time in an environment (such as with relatives, with friends, in childcare, or at school) where healthy eating choices or opportunities for physical activity are not available.Keeping Your Child From Becoming Overweight or Obese

How can I keep my child from becoming overweight or obese?

To help keep your child from becoming overweight or obese, make sure your child eats healthy and is physically active. There are many things that can be done at home, in school, and in the community to help keep children at a healthy weight. Some examples of each are listed below.

At Home

There are many things you can do at home as a family. Some examples include:

Eat healthy
  • Cook healthy meals at home with foods from each food group.
    • The food groups include fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods (such as meats, eggs, fish, tofu, and beans), and low-fat or nonfat dairy.
  • Be sure to eat a healthy breakfast every day.
  • Eat at the table as a family instead of in front of a screen (television, computer, cell phone, or tablet).
  • Limit or do not keep unhealthy foods and drinks at home.
    • Replace unhealthy snacks such as cookies, candy, or chips with healthy snacks such as fruits and vegetables.
    • Replace unhealthy sugary drinks such as sodas, sports drinks, or juices with healthy drinks such as water and low-fat or nonfat milk.
  • Eat most meals at home instead of at restaurants. At home, you are better able to limit the amount of fat, sugar, and salt in your meals.
  • Be sure to eat the right amount of food.
For more information about healthy foods, eating the right amount, and sample menus, go to http://choosemyplate.gov.
father swimming with his childrenBe physically active
  • Give your child a chance to run around and play – at least 1 hour a day.
  • Plan fun activities like bicycling, walking to the park, playing ball, or swimming.
  • Encourage everyone in the family to be active during the day.
    • For example, take the stairs instead of the elevator and walk or bike places instead of driving or taking the bus.
  • Limit the amount of screen time each day.
  • In addition to being physically active, make sure your child gets enough sleep each night.

Let’s Go! is a program to keep children from becoming obese. The program focuses on healthy eating and physical activity.

Let’s Go! recommends the “5-2-1-0” healthy habits for each day:

  • 5 fruits and vegetables
  • 2 hours or less of screen time for recreation
  • 1 hour or more of physical activity
  • 0 sugary drinks

Let’s Go! also recommends keeping television and computers out of your child’s bedroom and not allowing screen time for children younger than 2 years.

Let’s Go! is a State of Maine program that also supplies resources to communities outside of the State. These graphics and messages are adapted from Let’s Go! at www.letsgo.orgExit Disclaimer

In School

Girl in cafeteria line

In addition to eating healthy and being physically active at home, school programs can help keep children at a healthy weight. School programs could include things such as:

  • Lessons about the importance of healthy eating and physical activity
  • Information sessions for parents to learn ways to help keep their child at a healthy weight
  • Healthy breakfast and lunch options in the cafeteria with the right portion sizes
  • Healthy snacks and drinks in vending machines and at parties and events
  • Filtered water coolers to encourage drinking water instead of soft drinks or sports drinks
  • Adult-led walk-to-school or bike-to-school groups
  • A longer physical education (PE) period in which children are physically active
  • Gym equipment such as balls and jump ropes for use during recess

Let’s Go! also has resources for schools to help children eat healthy and be physically active. For more information and toolkits for your child’s school, go to www.letsgo.org/toolkits/Exit Disclaimer

To find out what your child’s school is doing to help keep children from becoming overweight or obese, talk with your child’s principal, school nurse, or school counselor. You can also ask how to become involved in the school’s Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) or Parent-Teacher Organization (PTO).

In the Community

In addition to home and school, things can also be done in the community to help keep children at a healthy weight. Communities and community centers can:

  • Improve community parks, sidewalks, and biking paths.
  • Take steps to make parks, sidewalks, and biking paths safe.
  • Advertise community events such as health fairs, 5K walks, sports events at local parks, community garden programs, and local farmers markets. This can be done on posters, in local newspapers, and on local television and radio stations.
  • Offer programs in which families can get advice on healthy eating and being physically active.

For other resources to help keep your child at a healthy weight, go to:

For more information about improving parks, sidewalks, and biking paths in your area, contact your local parks and recreation department.

For more information about events or programs in your community, contact your local community or recreation centers (such as the YMCA, Boys and Girls Club, or local religious community centers).

What have researchers found about doing things at home, in school, and in the community to help keep children from becoming overweight or obese?

Healthy eating and physical activity are very important in keeping children from becoming overweight or obese.

Researchers found that:

  • Programs at schools to help children eat healthy and be physically active can keep children from becoming overweight or obese.
  • Along with school programs, additional steps at home and in the community can also help.
  • More research is needed to know which particular programs or steps work the best.
  • Talking With Your Child’s Doctor, School, and Community Centers

Examples of Questions To Ask Your Child’s Doctor

  • Is my child at a healthy weight?
  • What are the most important things for me to do at home to help keep my child at a healthy weight?
  • How can I get my child to eat healthy foods?
  • How much of each type of food should my child eat?
  • How much physical activity does my child need each day?
  • What are the best types of physical activity for my child?
  • How much screen time should I allow my child each day?
  • How much sleep should my child get each night?
  • Do you have any resources that can help me keep my child at a healthy weight?
  • Do you know of any community resources that can help?
  • If there are no grocery stores nearby or healthy food is too expensive for me, do you know of any resources that could help me?
  • If there is no safe place for my child to play outside, how can I help my child stay active?

Examples of Questions To Ask Your Child’s School Principal, Nurse, or Counselor

  • Does the school offer programs to help keep children from becoming overweight or obese? If not, how can we start some?
  • In the cafeteria and in vending machines, are healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables available instead of sugary drinks and salty or fatty foods?
  • How much time is my child given during PE, recess, and throughout the day to be physically active?
  • Does the school ever use PE or other physical activity as punishment?
  • Do you have adult-led walk-to-school or bike-to-school programs or other physical activity programs for children?
  • Are there information sessions that I can attend to learn more about helping my child stay at a healthy weight?
  • What can I do at home to help reinforce what my child is taught about healthy eating and physical activity at school?
  • Do you know of any community resources that can help?

Examples of Questions To Ask Your Local Community or Recreation Center

  • Do you have any resources or programs on healthy eating or physical activities for children?
  • Do you keep a calendar of community events such as health fairs, 5K walks, or sports events at local parks?
  • Do you have a list of local community gardens or farmer’s markets?
  • Do you know of any programs that can give me advice on how to help my family eat healthy and be physically active?Sources

The information in this summary comes from the report Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs: Comparative Effectiveness Review and Meta-Analysis, June 2013. The report was produced by the Johns Hopkins University Evidence-based Practice Center through funding by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).

Additional information came from the MedlinePlus® Web site, a service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. The site is available at www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus.

This summary was prepared by the John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. It was written by Amelia Williamson Smith, M.S., Jason A. Mendoza, M.D., M.P.H., and Michael Fordis, M.D. Parents of children between the ages of 2 and 18 reviewed this summary.

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Women’s Health – Week 6: Bone Health and Osteoporosis

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From the Office of Research on Women’s Health

Bones are living tissue. A healthy body with strong bones is essential to overall health and quality of life. Strong bones support us and protect the heart, lungs, brain, and other organs from injury. Weak bones break easily. They cause pain and interrupt everyday activities.

Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease characterized by low bone mass. It makes bones weak and more likely to break – especially the bones of the hip, spine, and wrist.

The disease is a major public health threat for an estimated 44 million Americans, 68 percent of whom are women. Every year, 1.5 million Americans suffer a fracture because of weak bones, mostly in the wrists, spine, and hips.

Osteoporosis is called a silent disease because bone loss occurs without symptoms. People typically do not know that they have osteoporosis until their bones become so weak that a sudden strain, twist, or fall results in a fracture (broken bone). Many people are unaware of the link between a broken bone and osteoporosis.

While white women over the age of 50 are at highest risk for osteoporosis, women and men of every age and ethnicity should be concerned about bone health.

If you are older than 65, have broken a bone after age 50, have relatives with a broken bone, have certain medical conditions (for example, hyperthyroidism or arthritis), or take certain prescription medications (such as thyroid medicine or glucocorticoids), you may be at higher risk for osteoporosis. Talk to your health care provider and find out if you need a bone density test.

osteoporosis

Diagram showing a healthy spine versus a spine showing signs of osteoporosis. Click on the image to view larger.

Some steps you can take to help prevent osteoporosis and fractures:

  • Be physically active every day to keep your bones strong. Weight-bearing physical activity causes new bone tissue to form, which makes bones stronger.
  • Eat a healthy diet, including calcium and vitamin D, which are critical for good bone health.
  • Know that smoking and heavy alcohol use reduce your bone mass and increase your risk for broken bones.
  • Reduce your risk of falling with physical activity to make you stronger and to improve your balance and coordination (making you less likely to fall).
  • Make your home safe by removing things you can trip over (like small rugs and stepstools), using non-slip mats in the bathtub and shower, and installing bright light bulbs to make it easier to see.
  • Ask a health care provider to review your prescription and over-the-counter medicine because some medicines, or combinations of medicines, can make you less alert, slower to react, and can lead to a fall.
for more information: www.niams.nih.gov
NIH and You
Milk matters is a public health education campaign that promotes calcium consumption among tweens and teens, especially between the ages of 11 to 15, a time of critical bone growth. Bones grow fastest during the tween and teen years, and adequate calcium intake during these years helps prevent osteoporosis later in life. But, studies show that most tweens and teens are not getting enough of it in their diets. Fewer than one in ten girls and only one in four boys ages 9 to 13 are at or above their adequate intake of calcium. Although the consequences of low calcium consumption may not be visible in childhood, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development recognizes lack of calcium during the critical years of bone development can have a serious effect on the health of young people later in life.

 
for more information: www.nichd.nih.gov/milk

 

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WIC services in Washington given 30-day reprieve during federal shutdown

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WIC WashingtonOLYMPIA - Despite the federal government shutdown, Washington’s Women, Infants, and Children food and nutrition program has funding to continue service through October. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) reallocated funding to cover the costs for the month.

The reprieve comes just in time for Washington’s WIC Nutrition Program, which had only enough remaining funds to operate the program statewide until Oct. 9.

WIC provides important nutrition assistance and health referrals along with breastfeeding support to pregnant and breastfeeding women and their children up to age five, whose family income is at or below 185 percent poverty level.

The state Department of Health contracts with local health organizations and tribes to provide WIC services in all 39 counties in Washington. The program also authorizes certain grocery stores to accept WIC vouchers for the purchase of approved healthy foods.

If the federal government shutdown continues through this month, USDA will not have funding to re-allocate for services in November, and Washington WIC may not have funding to continue operations.

The Department of Health had been working on contingency plans in the event that WIC services had to end in October when reallocation was announced. Agency officials now have more time to develop a strategy in the event the shutdown does not end by Nov.1.

“WIC helps low-income families feed their children. We hope a budget will be passed and this important program can continue beyond October 31,” said Janet Jackson Charles, director of Nutrition Services at the Washington State Department of Health.

  • For questions about local WIC services call the state WIC office, 1-800-841-1410.
  • The Washington WIC Nutrition Program website has information about local WIC clinics
  • Related services around the state can be found at ParentHelp123.org or by calling the Family Health Hotline at 1-800-322-2588.
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Start at the store

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FoodEvery year, 1 out of 6 people gets sick from foodborne illness!

Thankfully, you can take action at the grocery store to stay healthy.

When shopping, pick up non-perishable foods first, followed by refrigerated/frozen items, and deli counter items last.

Make sure you’re purchasing food that is fresh, the sell-by date is current, and that it has been kept at the correct temperature.

Place cold items together in the cart to retain coldness.

Have meat and poultry bagged separately from other food items.

Refrigerate all perishable items immediately upon returning home.

This week, try to plan your shopping ahead of time so that you can make your grocery run quick, efficient, and most importantly, safe!

 

About the Monday Campaigns:

The Healthy Monday Tips is produced by a national health promotion initiative called the Monday Campaigns.

The thinking behind the initiative derives from two studies done at the Center for a Liveable Future at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health by Jullian Fry and Roni Neff.

In one study, they reviewed the scientific studies that looked at ways to get people to adopt healthy habits.

In that review, they found that one of the most effective ways to keep people on track is simply to remind them from time to time to stick to it.

But when would be the best time send those reminders?

Fry and Neff decided to look at Monday, which many of us consider the start of our week.

To better understand how we thought and felt about Monday, they reviewed the scientific literature as well as cultural references to Monday in movies, songs, books and other forms of art and literature, even video games.

They noted that a number of scientific studies have found that we may suffer more health problems on Monday. For example, a number of studies find that Americans have more heart attacks and strokes on Monday.

There is also evidence that we have more on-the-job injuries on Monday, perhaps because we are not quite back into the swing of things, or are still recovering from our weekend.

Fry and Neff also found that while many of us, facing the return to work, may dread Mondays, Monday is also seen as a day for making a fresh start.

Fry and Neff concluded that Monday might be a good day for promoting healthy habits. Calling attention to the health problems linked to the first day of the work week, such as heart attacks and on-the-job injuries, makes Monday a natural day to highlight the importance of prevention.

And the Monday’s reputation as a day to make a fresh start offers the opportunity to help people to renew their efforts to adopt healthier habits.

Fry and Neff’s findings are put into practice by the Monday Campaigns, which helps individuals and organizations use Monday as a focus for their health promotion efforts, providing free research, literature and artwork, and other support.

To learn more about Healthy Mondays:

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Less than 10 minutes of brisk activity helps maintain a healthy weight

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Running shoes full shotBy Milly Dawson, HBNS Contributing Writer
Research Source: American Journal of Health Promotion

Short bursts of less than 10 minutes of higher-intensity physical activity reduce the risk of obesity, finds a new study in the American Journal of Health Promotion.

“This research shows that when it comes to maintaining a healthy weight, every little bit of exercise counts, as long as it’s of reasonable intensity, such as a brisk walk, climbing stairs or jumping rope,” said study author Jessie X. Fan, Ph.D., professor in the department of family and consumer studies at the University of Utah.

Little bursts of exercise can add up to have a significant impact on a person’s weight, said Fan. In fact, the study showed that every minute spent in short bouts (1-10 minutes length) of high-intensity activity was as beneficial to Body Mass Index (BMI) as every minute in longer bouts (10 or more minutes) of higher-intensity exercise.

The study found that lower-intensity bouts of activity, of either short or long duration, were not associated with a lower BMI or risk of overweight or obesity in men or women.

The study’s authors noted that people often struggle to find the recommended 10-to-30 minute blocks of time that have been prescribed to meet widely held recommendations for exercise.

The current guidelines from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommend that adults get 150 minutes weekly of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, accumulated during bouts lasting at least 10 minutes each.

However, the researchers note, fewer than 4 percent of Americans age 20 to 59 reach this guideline.

The new study involved a nationally representative sample of 4,511 Americans aged 18 to 64 from 15 counties across the country. Participants wore accelerometers that measured their steps and the intensity of their steps for 7 consecutive days.

The authors reported that for both men and women, the most minutes of physical activity were accumulated in shorts bouts of low intensity activity, followed by short bouts of higher intensity activity, then by long bouts of low intensity and lastly by long bouts of high intensity.

In other words, short bouts of physical activity represent the bulk of the activity most Americans experience. The findings underscore the notion that for maintaining a healthy weight, the authors write, “every brisk minute counts!”

Jennifer Gay, Ph.D., assistant professor of health promotion and behavior at the University of Georgia explained that the guidelines setting a 10-minute minimum for an exercise session to “count” had been chosen because 10-minute bouts represent the point at which the body starts to experience benefits to the heart and lungs.

This new study, she said, focused on the impact of short-versus-long bouts of activity on people’s weight, which reflects how many calories they burn compared to the number they consume.

Gay noted that, “both cardiorespiratory health and energy expenditure can contribute to reductions in disease risk.”

Health Behavior News Service is part of the Center for Advancing Health

The Health Behavior News Service disseminates news stories on the latest findings from peer-reviewed research journals. HBNS covers both new studies and systematic reviews of studies on (1) the effects of behavior on health, (2) health disparities data and (3) patient engagement research. The goal of HBNS stories is to present the facts for readers to understand and use for themselves to make informed choices about health and health care.

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Schools Are Getting Healthier, says CDC

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school-busBy Marissa Evans

Nowadays, the hub for developing healthy habits isn’t just the gym or home. For kids, at least, it’s increasingly their schools, according to a study released this week by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

School districts across the country are demonstrating a range of improvements in terms of nutrition, exercise and tobacco policies.

For instance, after years of efforts to phase out junk food like candy and chips, the percentage of school districts that prohibited such food in vending machines increased from 29.8 percent in 2006 to 43.4 percent in 2012, according to the CDC’s 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study.

Also, slightly more than half of school districts – up from about 35 percent in 2000 — made information available to families on the nutrition and caloric content of foods available to students.

“Schools play a critical role in the health and well-being of our youth,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, in the news release. “Good news for students and parents — more students have access to healthy food, better physical fitness activities through initiatives such as ‘Let’s Move,’ and campuses that are completely tobacco free.”

Since 2000, the number of school districts that require elementary schools to teach physical education increased. In addition, the number of districts entering into agreements with local YMCAs, Boys & Girls Clubs or local parks and recreation departments went up, according to the study.

Meanwhile, the percentage of districts with policies that prohibited all tobacco use during any school-related activity increased from 46.7 percent in 2000 to 67.5 percent in 2012.

The CDC study is a periodic, national survey that examines key components of school health at the state, district, school, and classroom level, including health education; physical education and activity; health services; mental health and social services; nutrition services; healthy and safe school environment; faculty and staff health promotion; and family and community involvement.

This article was reprinted from kaiserhealthnews.org with permission from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health News, an editorially independent news service, is a program of the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan health care policy research organization unaffiliated with Kaiser Permanente.

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Shake your salt habit

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Salt ShakerDid you know that you can train your taste buds to enjoy less salt?

When you gradually cut back on sodium in your diet, your taste will adjust too; plus you’ll experience all the subtle flavors that you’ve been missing.

Keeping your sodium intake under 2,300 mg a day (or less than 1 teaspoon) can also reduce your risk of high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease.

It’s easy to skip the salt shaker and opt for low, no and reduced-sodium soups, broths and packaged foods.

If your food seems less flavorful, spice it up with herbs and low-sodium seasonings.

Start reducing your salt intake this week.

Remember that it can take a few months to completely re- train your taste buds, so be persistent and take it one meal at a time!

 

About the Monday Campaigns:

The Healthy Monday Tips is produced by a national health promotion initiative called the Monday Campaigns.

The thinking behind the initiative derives from two studies done at the Center for a Liveable Future at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health by Jullian Fry and Roni Neff.

In one study, they reviewed the scientific studies that looked at ways to get people to adopt healthy habits.

In that review, they found that one of the most effective ways to keep people on track is simply to remind them from time to time to stick to it.

But when would be the best time send those reminders?

Fry and Neff decided to look at Monday, which many of us consider the start of our week.

To better understand how we thought and felt about Monday, they reviewed the scientific literature as well as cultural references to Monday in movies, songs, books and other forms of art and literature, even video games.

They noted that a number of scientific studies have found that we may suffer more health problems on Monday. For example, a number of studies find that Americans have more heart attacks and strokes on Monday.

There is also evidence that we have more on-the-job injuries on Monday, perhaps because we are not quite back into the swing of things, or are still recovering from our weekend.

Fry and Neff also found that while many of us, facing the return to work, may dread Mondays, Monday is also seen as a day for making a fresh start.

Fry and Neff concluded that Monday might be a good day for promoting healthy habits. Calling attention to the health problems linked to the first day of the work week, such as heart attacks and on-the-job injuries, makes Monday a natural day to highlight the importance of prevention.

And the Monday’s reputation as a day to make a fresh start offers the opportunity to help people to renew their efforts to adopt healthier habits.

Fry and Neff’s findings are put into practice by the Monday Campaigns, which helps individuals and organizations use Monday as a focus for their health promotion efforts, providing free research, literature and artwork, and other support.

To learn more about Healthy Mondays:

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Obesity across states – infographic

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By Michael Ollove
Stateline Staff Writer

After three decades of weight gains, adult obesity rates remained flat in the last year in every state except Arkansas.

Louisiana and Mississippi had the highest obesity rates – more than 34 percent of the adult population in both states was obese — while Colorado had the lowest rate at just over 20 percent.

The report, titled “F As In Fat,” found the poorer and less educated the population, the higher the rate of obesity.

08_16_fat_MAP

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Stateline is a nonpartisan, nonprofit news service of the Pew Center on the States that provides daily reporting and analysis on trends in state policy.

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Set aside the soda

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Soda Pop TopSoft drinks are the single largest contributor to the total calorie intake of Americans, and numerous studies have linked increased intake of sweetened beverages to rising American obesity rates over the past few decades.

While this info may motivate you to reach for a diet soda, there are disagreements over the benefits of artificially sweetened beverages; they may actually increase appetite and encourage weight gain.

Try to kick your soda habit this week.

Choose water with a squeeze of citrus, unsweetened tea, or 100% fruit/vegetable juice instead of a soft drink to save calories and reduce your hunger.

 

About the Monday Campaigns:

The Healthy Monday Tips is produced by a national health promotion initiative called the Monday Campaigns.

The thinking behind the initiative derives from two studies done at the Center for a Liveable Future at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health by Jullian Fry and Roni Neff.

In one study, they reviewed the scientific studies that looked at ways to get people to adopt healthy habits.

In that review, they found that one of the most effective ways to keep people on track is simply to remind them from time to time to stick to it.

But when would be the best time send those reminders?

Fry and Neff decided to look at Monday, which many of us consider the start of our week.

To better understand how we thought and felt about Monday, they reviewed the scientific literature as well as cultural references to Monday in movies, songs, books and other forms of art and literature, even video games.

They noted that a number of scientific studies have found that we may suffer more health problems on Monday. For example, a number of studies find that Americans have more heart attacks and strokes on Monday.

There is also evidence that we have more on-the-job injuries on Monday, perhaps because we are not quite back into the swing of things, or are still recovering from our weekend.

Fry and Neff also found that while many of us, facing the return to work, may dread Mondays, Monday is also seen as a day for making a fresh start.

Fry and Neff concluded that Monday might be a good day for promoting healthy habits. Calling attention to the health problems linked to the first day of the work week, such as heart attacks and on-the-job injuries, makes Monday a natural day to highlight the importance of prevention.

And the Monday’s reputation as a day to make a fresh start offers the opportunity to help people to renew their efforts to adopt healthier habits.

Fry and Neff’s findings are put into practice by the Monday Campaigns, which helps individuals and organizations use Monday as a focus for their health promotion efforts, providing free research, literature and artwork, and other support.

To learn more about Healthy Mondays:

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What is gluten-free?

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An FDA Consumer Update

White Bread by Ricardo PerinaPeople with celiac disease can now have confidence in the meaning of a “gluten-free” label on foods.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued a final rule that defines what characteristics a food has to have to bear a label that proclaims it “gluten- free.” The rule also holds foods labeled “without gluten,” “free of gluten,” and “no gluten” to the same standard.

This rule has been eagerly awaited by advocates for people with celiac disease, who face potentially life-threatening illnesses if they eat the gluten found in breads, cakes, cereals, pastas and many other foods.

As one of the criteria for using the claim “gluten-free,” FDA is setting a gluten limit of less than 20 ppm (parts per million) in foods that carry this label.

This is the lowest level that can be consistently detected in foods using valid scientific analytical tools. Also, most people with celiac disease can tolerate foods with very small amounts of gluten.

This level is consistent with those set by other countries and international bodies that set food safety standards.

“This standard ‘gluten-free’ definition will eliminate uncertainty about how food producers label their products and will assure people with celiac disease that foods labeled ‘gluten-free’ meet a clear standard established and enforced by FDA,” says Michael R. Taylor, J.D., deputy FDA commissioner for foods and veterinary medicine.

Andrea Levario, executive director of the American Celiac Disease Alliance, notes that there is no cure for celiac disease and the only way to manage the disease is dietary—not eating gluten. Without a legal definition of “gluten-free,” these consumers could never really be sure if their body would tolerate a food with that label, she adds.

“This is a tool that has been desperately needed,” Levario says. “It keeps food safe for this population, gives them the tools they need to manage their health, and obviously has long-term benefits for them.”

“Without proper food labeling regulation, celiac patients cannot know what the words ‘gluten free’ mean when they see them on a food label,” says Allessio Fasano, M.D., director of the Center for Celiac Research at MassGeneral Hospital for Children, visiting professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and member of the American Celiac Disease Alliance.

What Is Gluten?

Gluten means the proteins that occur naturally in wheat, rye, barley, and crossbreeds of these grains.

As many as 3 million people in the United States have celiac disease. It occurs when the body’s natural defense system reacts to gluten by attacking the lining of the small intestine.

Without a healthy intestinal lining, the body cannot absorb the nutrients it needs. Delayed growth and nutrient deficiencies can result and may lead to conditions such as anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells) and osteoporosis, a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break. Other serious health problems may include diabetes, autoimmune thyroid disease and intestinal cancers.

Before the rule there were no federal standards or definitions for the food industry to use in labeling products “gluten-free.” An estimated 5 percent of foods currently labeled “gluten-free” contain 20 ppm or more of gluten.

How Does FDA Define ‘Gluten-Free’?

In addition to limiting the unavoidable presence of gluten to less than 20 ppm, FDA will allow manufacturers to label a food “gluten-free” if the food does not contain any of the following:

  1. an ingredient that is any type of wheat, rye, barley, or crossbreeds of these grains
  2. an ingredient derived from these grains and that has not been processed to remove gluten
  3. an ingredient derived from these grains and that has been processed to remove gluten, if it results in the food containing 20 or more parts per million (ppm) gluten

Foods such as bottled spring water, fruits and vegetables, and eggs can also be labeled “gluten-free” if they inherently don’t have any gluten.

The regulation will be published Aug. 5, 2013 in the Federal Register, and manufacturers have one year from the publication date to bring their labels into compliance.

Taylor says he believes many foods labeled “gluten free” may be able to meet the new federal definition already. However, he adds, “We encourage the food industry to come into compliance with the rule as soon as possible.”

Under the new rule, a food label that bears the claim “gluten-free,” as well as the claims “free of gluten,” “without gluten,” and “no gluten,” but fails to meet the requirements of the rule would be considered misbranded and subject to regulatory action by FDA.

Those who need to know with certainty that a food is gluten-free are heralding the arrival of this definition. “This is a huge victory for people with celiac disease,” says Levario. “In fact, that’s the understatement of the year.”

Says Taylor, “FDA’s ‘gluten-free’ definition will help people make food choices with confidence.”

This article appears on FDA’s Consumer Updates page, which features the latest on all FDA-regulated products.

August 2, 2013

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health scams quack

Fake diabetes treatments flood marketplace – FDA warns

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health scams quackFrom the FDA

As the number of people diagnosed with diabetes continues to grow, illegally sold products promising to prevent, treat, and even cure diabetes are flooding the marketplace.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is advising consumers not to use such products. They may contain harmful ingredients or may be otherwise unsafe, or may improperly be marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) products when they should be marketed as prescription products.

They carry an additional risk if they cause consumers to delay or discontinue effective treatments for diabetes. Without proper disease management, people with diabetes are at a greater risk for developing serious health complications.

“People with chronic or incurable diseases may feel desperate and become easy prey. Bogus products for diabetes are particularly troubling because there are effective options available to help manage this serious disease rather than exposing patients to unproven and risky products,” said Gary Coody, R.Ph., national health fraud coordinator for FDA.

“Failure to follow well-established treatment plans can lead to, among other things, amputations, kidney disease, blindness and death,” Coody said.

Warning Letters Issued

Recently, FDA launched an initiative to counter these illegally sold products aimed at consumers who have diabetes. In addition to evaluating numerous consumer complaints, FDA surveyed the marketplace for illegally sold products promising to treat diabetes and its complications.

In July 2013, FDA issued letters warning 15 companies about selling products for diabetes in violation of federal law. These products are sold as dietary supplements; alternative medicines, such as ayurvedics; prescription drugs and over-the-counter drugs, including homeopathic products.

Examples of claims observed on these illegally marketed products include:

  • “Lower your blood sugar naturally.”
  • “Lowers A1C levels significantly.”
  • “You’ll lower your chances of having eye disease, kidney disease, nerve damage and heart disease!”
  • “It can replace medicine in the treatment of diabetes.”
  • “For Relief of Diabetic Foot Pain.”

Some of the companies also promote unapproved products for other serious diseases, including cancer, sexually transmitted diseases, and macular degeneration.

FDA tested products marketed as “all natural” treatments for diabetes and discovered some of them contained one or more active ingredients found in prescription drugs to treat type 2 diabetes.

Undeclared ingredients can cause serious harm. If consumers and their health care professionals are unaware of the actual ingredients in the products they are taking, these products may interact in dangerous ways with other medications.

One possible complication: Patients may end up taking a larger combined dose of the diabetic drugs than they intended, and that may cause a significant unsafe drop in blood sugar levels, a condition known as hypoglycemia.

FDA also looked at sales of prescription drugs from fraudulent online pharmacies. Signs that indicate an online pharmacy is legitimate include: requiring that patients have a valid prescription; providing a physical address in the U.S.; being licensed by a state pharmacy board; and having a state-licensed pharmacist to answer questions.

Some fraudulent online pharmacies illegally sell drugs that are not approved in the United States, or sell prescription drug products without meeting necessary requirements.

One website that is subject to a warning letter shipped a prescription diabetes drug without requiring a prescription, and even included an unsolicited free sample of a prescription drug for erectile dysfunction.

Moreover, the prescription diabetes drug was dispensed without the medication guide and other precautions required by FDA to ensure the drug is used safely and appropriately.

Although some of these websites may offer for sale what appear to be FDA-approved prescription drugs, FDA cannot confirm that the manufacture or the handling of these drugs follows U.S. regulations or that the drugs are safe and effective for their intended uses. Also, there is a risk the drugs may be counterfeit, contaminated, expired or otherwise unsafe.

A Far-Reaching Problem

There are 26 million people in the U.S. who have diabetes, including about 7 million who are undiagnosed, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Millions more have pre-diabetes, meaning they have higher than normal blood sugar levels and can reduce their risks of developing diabetes through healthy lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise.

“Products that promise an easy fix might be alluring, but consumers are gambling with their health. In general, diabetes is a chronic disease, but it is manageable and people can lower their risk for developing complications by following treatments prescribed by health care professionals, carefully monitoring blood sugar levels, and sticking to an appropriate diet and exercise program,” said Coody.

Health care professionals and consumers are encouraged to report any adverse events related to products intented to treat or cure diabetes to FDA’s MedWatch Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program:

This article appears on FDA’s Consumer Updates page, which features the latest on all FDA-regulated products.

July 23, 2013

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Obesity a challenge among the disabled

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Disabled wheelchair handicapped iconBy Glenda Fauntleroy, HBNS Contributing Writer
Research Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Obesity and its related health problems impacts far more people with a disability than previously reported, according to new research in theAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine.

About 54 million people in the U.S. have a disability that affects mobility. The study looked at how these disabilities affect the prevalence of obesity and chronic conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure.

Lead author Katherine Froehlich-Grobe, Ph.D., associate professor at University of Texas School of Public Health in Dallas, said the main impetus of the study was to assess the rate of obesity among people with disabilities based on actual measurements rather than people’s self-reported height and weight, which are often inaccurate.

“While we expected to see higher prevalence than earlier estimates based on self-reports, we were surprised to see how high obesity prevalence was among those with a disability,” she said.

The researchers used six sets of data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (1999–2010) to compare the rates of obesity and extreme obesity among 11,556 adults with disabilities and 20,434 adults without disabilities.

The most common disabilities affecting mobility were arthritis and back and neck problems. Chronic disease risk factors, including blood pressure, lipids and glucose levels were also compared by weight and severity and status of disability.

The study found that 41.6 percent of people with disabilities were obese and 9.3 percent were extremely obese. In contrast, 29.2 percent of those without a disability were obese and 3.9 percent extremely obese.

People with disabilities at all weight categories were significantly more likely to report having high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes and to have been prescribed medications for these conditions.

Healthcare providers should be encouraged to include individuals with disabilities in their clinical weight management efforts, suggest the researchers.

“Physical activity and exercise are critical to weight management and those with disabilities should also be as active as they can within the limits of their function and health,” said Froehlich-Grobe. “Common forms of exercise and activity [include] walking or bicycling, so the problem faced by providers is knowing what to recommend to those who face mobility issues and for whom walking is neither feasible or advisable.”

Lawrence J. Cheskin, M.D., director of Johns Hopkins Weight Loss Management Center in Baltimore, said patients with disabilities treated at his center are indeed faced with more challenges, since physical activity may be less possible as a means of preventing or treating weight gain.

“Food may also be a source of pleasure and comfort even more than in the general population,” Cheskin said. “We tend to focus on addressing intake, as this is the area most likely to result in improvements in weight.”

Health Behavior News Service is part of the Center for Advancing Health

The Health Behavior News Service disseminates news stories on the latest findings from peer-reviewed research journals. HBNS covers both new studies and systematic reviews of studies on (1) the effects of behavior on health, (2) health disparities data and (3) patient engagement research. The goal of HBNS stories is to present the facts for readers to understand and use for themselves to make informed choices about health and health care.

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