Category Archives: Cancer

How to protect your children from cancer – CDC

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Cancer Prevention Starts in Childhood

Tips from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Photo of two parents and three children sitting outside

You can reduce your children’s risk of getting cancer later in life.

Start by helping them adopt a healthy lifestyle with good eating habits and plenty of exercise to keep a healthy weight.

Then follow the tips below to help prevent specific kinds of cancer. Continue reading

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Keep your cool in hot weather – CDC

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Sun Orange Orb by Cris DeRaudGetting too hot can make you sick. You can become ill from the heat if your body can’t compensate for it and properly cool you off.

Heat exposure can even kill you: it caused 7,233 heat-related deaths in the United States from 1999 to 2009.

Learn about heat-related illness and how to stay cool and safe in hot weather

.Main things affecting your body’s ability to cool itself during extremely hot weather:

  • High humidity. When the humidity is high, sweat won’t evaporate as quickly, which keeps your body from releasing heat as fast as it may need to.
  • Personal factors. Age, obesity, fever, dehydration, heart disease, mental illness, poor circulation, sunburn, and prescription drug and alcohol use can play a role in whether a person can cool off enough in very hot weather.

Continue reading

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Extreme obesity may shorten life expectancy up to 14 years

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ScaleFrom the National Cancer Institute

Adults with extreme obesity have increased risks of dying at a younger age from cancer and many other causes including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and kidney and liver diseases, according to a new study.

The study, led by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, found that people with class III (or extreme) obesity had a dramatic reduction in life expectancy compared with people of normal weight. The findings appeared July 8, 2014, in PLOS Medicine.

 Six percent of US adults are now classified as extremely obese

“While once a relatively uncommon condition, the prevalence of class III, or extreme, obesity is on the rise. In the United States, for example, six percent of adults are now classified as extremely obese, which, for a person of average height, is more than 100 pounds over the recommended range for normal weight,” said Cari Kitahara, Ph.D., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, and lead author of the study.  Continue reading

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Cloudy weather doesn’t mean region’s skin cancer risk is low

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Blue sky and white clouds (Panorama)Just be because the Puget Sound regions has cloudy weather most of the year, doesn’t mean our risk of getting skin cancer is low, the Washington State Department of Health (DoH) warns.

In fact, if Puget Sound, were a state by itself, would rank fourth in the nation for skin cancer rates, the DoH says.

Why? Because of a misconception that cloudy weather means we don’t have to protect themselves from the sun, the DoH says.

Here’s more from the DoH alert: Continue reading

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Insurers push back against growing cost of cancer treatments

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 This KHN story also ran in .

Some cancer patients and their insurers are seeing their bills for chemotherapy jump sharply, reflecting increased drug prices and hospitals’ push to buy oncologists’ practices and then bill at higher rates.

Patients say, “‘I’ve been treated with Herceptin for breast cancer for several years and it was always $5,000 for the drug and suddenly it’s $16,000 — and I was in the same room with the same doctor same nurse and the same length of time’,” said Dr. Donald Fischer, chief medical officer for Highmark, the largest health plan in Pennsylvania. Continue reading

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Death with Dignity Act prescriptions rise 43 percent

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Washington MapThe number of Washington state residents who obtained prescriptions for a lethal dose of drugs under the state’s Death with Dignity Act rose from 121 in 2012 to 175 in 2013, a 43% increase over the previous year.

Of the 159 who died

  • 77 percent had cancer
  • 15 percent had a neuro-degenerative disease, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease).
  • 8 percent had other conditions, including heart and respiratory disease,

Their ages ranged from 29 to 95 years. Ninety-seven percent were white, and 76% had some college education. Ninety-five percent lived west of the Cascades.

Of the 159 who died, 119 ingested the medication and 26 did not. In 14 cases, it is unknown whether they took the medicines.

Reasons that patients gave for obtaining the lethal prescriptions included

  • Concerns about loss of autonomy – 91 percent
  • Concerns about loss of dignity – 79 percent
  • Concerns about loss of the ability to participate in activities that make life enjoyable – 89 percent.

Under the state’s Death with Dignity Act, terminally ill adult patients have had the right to ask their physician to prescribe a lethal dose of medication to end their life. Since the law’s enactment, 550 people have acted on that right since the law went into effect.

The 2013 Death with Dignity Act Report and information about the Washington State Death with Dignity Act are on the agency website.

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Know your hepatitis ABCs for Hepatitis Awareness Month – CDC

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From the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Graphic: Millions of Americans are living with viral hepatitis.

  • Hepatitis A: Outbreaks in the US do occur.
  • Hepatitis B: Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have higher rates.
  • Hepatitis C: New treatments can cure the disease.

Viral hepatitis is a major global health threat and affects over 4.4 million Americans. In observance of May as Hepatitis Awareness Month, here are brief overviews of each of the three most common types of viral hepatitis in the United States: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.

Hepatitis A: Outbreaks in the US can and do occur

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National strategy needed to eliminate hepatitis C

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Hepatitis CBy Michael Ollove
Stateline Staff Writer
May 19, 2014

The U.S. is in the midst of a hepatitis C epidemic with as many as 3.9 million Americans infected with the liver-damaging virus.

Aggressively targeting a concentrated population with the contagious but curable disease could be the best approach to eradicating the deadly virus.

The most logical place to launch the counterattack is in the country’s jails and prisons, where the infection rate is about 17 percent, compared to 1 percent to 2 percent overall in the U.S., said Josiah Rich, a Brown University infectious disease physician.

A recent study estimated that 1.86 million people with the virus were incarcerated.

“With more than 10 million Americans cycling in and out of prisons and jails each year, including nearly one of every three HCV (hepatitis C)-infected people,” Rich said, “the criminal justice system may be the best place to efficiently identify and cure the greatest number of HCV-infected people.” Continue reading

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Who should get pricey hepatitis C drugs?

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 This KHN story was produced in collaboration with wapo

Simple math illustrates the challenge facing U.S. taxpayers, consumers and insurers following the launch late last year of two expensive new drugs to treat hepatitis C.

If all 3 million people estimated to be infected with the virus in America are treated at an average cost of $100,000 each, the amount the U.S. spends on prescription drugs would double, from about $300 billion in one year to more than $600 billion.

That prospect has inspired an unusually blunt public debate:  Should expensive treatments – one new drug costs $1,000 a pill — be limited only to the sickest patients, or is it appropriate to treat all who want the drugs immediately? And should those in taxpayer-funded programs have the same access? Continue reading

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High-cost hepatitis C treatments hits big insurer

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$100-dollar bill inside a capsuleBy Jay Hancock
KHN

UnitedHealth Group spent $100 million on hepatitis C drugs in the first three months of the year, much more than expected, the company said Thursday.

The news helped drive down the biggest insurance company’s stock and underscores the challenge for all health care payers in covering Sovaldi, an expensive new pill for hepatitis C.

“We’ve been surprised on the volume — the pent-up demand across all three businesses” — commercial insurance and private Medicare and Medicaid plans, said Daniel Schumacher, chief financial officer of UnitedHealth’s insurance wing. Continue reading

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There’s a life-saving hepatitis C drug. But you may not be able to afford it.

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Sovaldi logoBy Julie Appleby
KHN Staff Writer

MAR 03, 2014

This KHN story was produced in collaboration with 

There’s a new drug regimen being touted as a potential cure for a dangerous liver virus that causes hepatitis C.  But it costs $84,000 – or $1,000 a pill.

And that price tag is prompting outrage from some consumers and a scramble by insurers to figure out which patients should get the drug —and who pays for it.

Called Sovaldi, the drug is made by California-based Gilead Sciences Inc. and is the latest in handful of new treatments for hepatitis C, a chronic infection that afflicts at least 3 million Americans and is a leading cause of liver failure. It was approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration in December. Continue reading

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App lets you determine your neighborhood’s radon risk

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Screen Shot 2014-01-21 at 11.28.29From the Washington State Department of Health

Olympia, January 21, 2014 – Washington residents now have a new online map to check and see if their neighborhood has a geological risk for the cancer-causing gas, radon, using a new state app. The new app is offered by the state Department of Health’s Washington Tracking Network.

Some areas of the state, such as Spokane and Clark counties, are well-known for having higher levels of radon, but the new online map shows that there are some areas around the Puget Sound such as Pierce and King counties that might come as a surprise.  Continue reading

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Nipple aspirator

Nipple aspirate test is no substitute for mammogram – FDA

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Consumer Update from the US Food and Drug Administration

ucm378297Many women admit that getting a mammogram is no fun, and may wish there was an easier, more comfortable way to screen for breast cancer in its earliest and most treatable stages.

Some companies today are promoting a test in which a breast pump is used to collect fluid from a woman’s nipple to screen for abnormal and potentially cancerous cells. This test—called a nipple aspirate—is being marketed as the latest and greatest tool in early breast cancer screening, one that is easier, more comfortable and less painful than the mammogram.

However, there is no clinical evidence to support these claims, says David L. Lerner, M.D., a medical officer at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a specialist in breast imaging.

“FDA’s concern is that the nipple aspirate test is being touted as a stand-alone tool to screen for and diagnose breast cancer as an alternative to mammography,” Lerner explains. “Our fear is that women will forgo a mammogram and have this test instead.” This could result in serious health consequences if breast cancer goes undetected, he notes.

FDA is unaware of any valid scientific data to show that nipple aspirate tests, when used on their own, are an effective screening tool for any medical condition, including the detection of breast cancer or other breast disease, Lerner says. Researchers are still studying whether these tests may one day be used, in conjunction with other medical devices, to screen for disease.

In February 2013 FDA issued a warning letter to Atossa Genetics, Inc. that, among other things, informed the company that their test was misbranded in that its labeling was false or misleading. The agency asked the firm to take prompt action to correct the violations addressed in the warning letter. In October 2013, Atossa initiated a voluntary recall to remove the ForeCYTE Breast Health Test from the market.

Unsubstantiated Claims

In addition to stating that the test can help women 18 years and older determine their risk level for breast cancer, Atossa claimed that its test was “literally a Pap smear for breast cancer.” According to FDA medical officer Michael Cummings, M.D., who reviews obstetrical and gynecological devices for the agency, this claim is unsubstantiated.

“The cervical Pap smear has a known clinical benefit supported by extensive clinical studies over many years,” Cummings says. “Its scientific ability to screen for cervical cancer is unquestioned.” The nipple aspiration test has no such evidence supporting it, he attests.

In addition, Lerner explains that if a Pap smear shows abnormal cells of the cervix, there are follow-up procedures that can be done to try to identify the location of those cells, after which a biopsy of the area is possible. With a breast nipple aspirate, if there are abnormal cells, the test does not target where those cells are coming from, so a biopsy may not be possible. Moreover, while the risk of abnormal cervical cells progressing to cancer is known, the risk of abnormal breast cells progressing to cancer is not.

Lerner says the test may produce results that are falsely positive or falsely negative. “False positives are possible because cells can be damaged in the aspiration process and look abnormal,” he notes. “We are even more concerned about false negatives,” he adds. Companies acknowledge that over 90% of their fluid samples may contain either very scant cells or no cells at all. Yet the companies call such results “diagnostically useful” and even conclude that a patient is healthy based on a cell-free sample, he says. “The test may be missing cancers and giving women dangerous false assurance,” Lerner says.

Mammography Still the Best

The mammogram can be uncomfortable for the woman being screened because it compresses the breast to flatten out the breast tissue and increase the clarity of the X-ray image. Still, FDA is not alone in believing that mammography is the most effective method for screening for breast cancer. Other organizations agree, including the American Cancer Society, the American College of Radiology (the professional society of physicians who specialize in medical imaging) and the National Cancer Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health.

The National Cancer Institute states that screening mammography can help reduce the number of deaths from breast cancer among women ages 40 to 70. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) 2013 guidelines state that the clinical utility of nipple aspiration is still being evaluated and that it should not be used as a breast cancer screening technique.

FDA recommends that women who have received a nipple aspirate test as a form of breast cancer screening should also have a mammogram according to screening guidelines or as recommended by their doctor, and should talk to their health care professional about whether additional tests are needed.

“The bottom line is that women should not rely solely on these nipple aspirate tests for the screening or diagnosis of breast cancer, “Lerner says. “Mammography is still the gold standard.”

This article appears on FDA’s Consumer Updates page, which features the latest on all FDA-regulated products.

Dec. 12, 2013

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